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  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 10
  • Four openlabel and three doubleblind trials have been conducted on the effects of collagen hydrolysate in osteoarthritis.The aforementioned common nutraceutical compounds have been associated with modest improvements in various parameters of degenerative joint disease severity and progression, though inconsistencies exist between clinical trial results and study designs.Moreover, these natural substances are plagued by bioavailability limitations, necessitating the oral consumption of higher doses.Though the described nutraceuticals are commonly used in the prevention andor treatment of osteoarthritis due to their chondroprotective potential, recommendations regarding their use are conflicting.As previously described, the ability of naringin to improve numerous aspects of musculoskeletal health and protect against degenerative cartilaginous and bone pathology in preclinical studies merits clinical investigation.Naringins mechanisms of action are also distinct from those of the aforementioned nutraceuticals and may contribute to more consistent clinical improvements based on preclinical findings.Despite its inherent pharmacokinetic limitations similar to those of the other natural chondroprotective compounds, the enhanced delivery, release, and action of naringin on bone and connective tissue via novel bioformulations may address existent shortcomings in the clinical use and evaluation of nutritional supplements in musculoskeletal pathology.All of these potential therapeutic avenues of naringin have yet to be thoroughly clinically interrogated.Naringin effectively reduces osteoclastogenesis, inflammation, and adipogenesis and induces osteoblastic differentiation from progenitor cells for the maintenance and preservation of both cartilage and bone.Though naringin demonstrates promise as a therapeutic agent for several forms of osteoporosis, DM, degenerative joint disease, and osteomyelitis, many limitations must be addressed before these early findings can be translated into viable therapies.Additional research is needed into the ways in which the pharmacokinetic properties of naringin can be improved, be it through the use of constructs such as nanocarriers and hydrogels, to optimize naringin delivery, action, and persistence at sites of action.Regardless, naringin represents a ubiquitous, costefficient, biologically active, natural compound whose potential can be harnessed to develop novel treatments for common musculoskeletal conditions.All authors approved the final version of this manuscript.The function of naringin in inducing secretion of osteoprotegerin and inhibiting formation of osteoclasts.Upregulation of PPAR, heat shock protein and by naringin attenuates insulin resistance, cell dysfunction, hepatic steatosis and kidney damage in a rat model of type diabetes.Pathophysiology of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis.Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network metaanalysis.Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature.Semin Arthritis Rheum. Nonoperative management of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.Visit SAGE journals online journals.sagepub.com hometab SAGE journa ls journals.sagepub.comhometab The allelopathic assessment was conducted using two methods: sandwich and dishpack.Whilst, at the distance of mm from the donor source well by using dish pack.These chemical compounds are released into the environment from plant parts through leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and other processes in both natural and agricultural systems, cheaper and environmental friendly, thus provide better option compared to herbicide. This species is a perennial herb growing with dense taproot, woody cylindrical stem with simple leaves. In galenic medicine, this plant is used to treat bronchitis, coughs, gastrointestinal complaints, tumours, pain relief, pulmonary and respiratory ailments.

    May 10
  • These findings suggest that naringin is a potent natural promoter of osteogenesis with the potential for use in stem cell therapies, which traditionally use dexamethasone for lineage differentiation.Such treatments are often limited by adipogenesis secondary to glucocorticoid exposure, even when conducted in osteogenic media.Increased osteoclastogenesis is the hallmark of many bone pathologies, including senile osteoporosis due to increased adipogenesis, postmenopausal osteoporosis secondary to the loss of the osteoblastic and antiosteoclastic effects of estrogen, and diabetic osteoporosis induced by the proinflammatory state and resultant macroangiopathies and microangiopathies characteristic of diabetes mellitus.Osteoclastogenesis is mediated by interactions between RANKRANKL and osteoprotegrin; pathologic states increase the RANKRANKL ratio present in bone and decrease production of OPG.Naringin has been shown to successfully disrupt osteoclastogenesis via the RANKRANKL pathway. Furthermore, naringin enhances OPG release from osteoblasts, reducing interactions between RANKL and its receptor and preventing osteoclast differentiation.The combination of these mechanisms suppresses the expression of genes critical to osteoclast development.In childhood and adolescence, estrogen drives progression to skeletal maturity and the maturation and fusion of the epiphyseal growth plates.In adults, estrogen maintains bone stock and influences bone turnover by inhibiting bone resorption.Estrogen mediates its boneprotective effects through estrogen receptor. Estrogen also induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by Targetmol's Xanthohumol upregulating interactions between the death receptor and its ligand. Furthermore, estrogen inhibits osteoblastmediated osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the production of IL, IL, and TNF, which induce osteoclast differentiation from progenitor cells.Estrogen also modulates the synthesis of OPG, which serves as a decoy receptor for RANKL, by osteoblasts, thus hindering osteoclastogenesis.The loss of estrogen production in menopause is the primary causative factor of diminished BMD and increased predisposition to fractures among postmenopausal women.Naringin also downregulates expression of BCL while upregulating expression of BAX, caspase, and cytochrome C, suggesting that naringin may induce osteoclast apoptosis through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.The ability of naringin to induce apoptosis in exposed osteoclasts and upregulate OPG mRNA levels in MCTE cells hinders osteoclastogenesis in ways that mirror the native effects of estrogen on bone.By targeting pathways vital to the pathogenesis of menopauseinduced bone loss, naringin may stem the musculoskeletal consequences of reduced estrogen production for the restoration of bone stock.Daily oral naringin administration increased femoral bone mass in healthy mice by enhancing trabecular and cortical bone content and quality. The majority of osteoporosis animal models have employed ovariectomy to reduce circulating estrogen levels and induce osteoclastmediated bone resorption.This model simulates the loss of estrogen production characteristic of menopause, after which the cortical and trabecular BMD and interconnections between bone cells become drastically diminished and the risk of pathologic fracture significantly increases, resulting in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Orchidectomized, retinoic acidinduced, and disuseinduced animal models of osteoporosis have also been generated to study disease physiology and therapeutic avenues.Naringin has been found to mitigate the loss of bone calcium and phosphorus content, BMD, bone architecture quality and bone mechanical strength across all murine models of osteoporosis, particularly in OVX mice and rats. In vivo effects of naringin.Osteoporosis secondary to the loss of estrogens anabolic effects during menopause, the proinflammatory state of diabetes that promotes osteoclastogenesis, or the loss of pERK due to glucocorticoid use leads to decreased trabeculae volume, yielding an increased risk of fracture.

    May 10
  • The primary site of flavonone action is the cytoplasmic membrane.This may allude to the potential of these compounds to disrupt the formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance.Baicalin is one of the few flavonones whose effects upon osteomyelitisinduced bone resorption has been investigated.This altered inflammatory response profile bears semblance to the already elucidated mechanisms of naringin signaling in reducing osteolysis in various models of bone loss.Moreover, the demonstrated ability of naringin to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resident cell apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation in other models of osteolytic and inflammatory bone loss is suggestive of its potential to mitigate the osteolytic effects of entrenched bony infection.Further in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the antiinflammatory effects of naringin therapy, and with a variety of drug delivery systems, in the setting of musculoskeletal infection are needed.The demonstrated efficacy of flavonones in preventing osteoclastic bone resorption and promoting osteoblastic differentiation and activity in other osteolytic diseases may carry over to the progressive destruction of bone characteristic of osteomyelitis.Furthermore, the natural occurrence, widespread availability, and low cost of isoflavonoids make them attractive in the treatment of osteomyelitis and in addressing the unequal burden of chronic osteomyelitis in low and middleincome countries.Numerous biomaterialbased platforms have been investigated with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic effects of naringin by reducing its degradation and sustaining its spatiotemporal release within the body.This naringin nanoscaffold also suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a critical size defect of mouse calvarial bone, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in TRAP staining compared to blank PCL nanoscaffold controls.Further research is needed to characterize the in vivo performance of these novel naringinloaded delivery systems, their effects upon the bioactivity of naringin in various bodily tissues, and their safety and utility in the treatment of diverse musculoskeletal conditions.Measured serum biomarkers included alanine aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, and potassium, as well as total white blood cell and eosinophil counts as markers of immune system activation.At these doses, naringin metabolites freely circulate and are effectively cleared from the body within hof ingestion.The authors concluded that oral doses of mg of naringinen are safe and tolerable in healthy adults, with serum concentrations proportional to the oral doses received.One randomized controlled trial of excessive grapefruit consumption reported constipation and diarrhea as adverse effects, though it is not clear whether this effect can be solely or primarily attributed to naringin.It may also be extracted from the chitinous exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell membranes of mushrooms.Glucosamine is a precursor of glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and is vital for the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate, all components of the extracellular matrices of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.The utility of glucosamine supplementation in the forms of glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride has been explored in multiple randomized clinical trials of osteoarthritis patients.However, the authors classified these data as inconsistent and unclear with a likely modest effect size, if any.Chondroitin sulfate increases synovial cell production of hyaluronan, which maintains the viscosity of synovial fluid.In a clinical trial of patients given mg of chondroitin sulfate or placebo for months, chondroitin sulfate demonstrated superiority to placebo with respect to global hand pain, hand function, and morning stiffness reduction.

    May 10
  • The primary site of flavonone action is the cytoplasmic membrane.This may allude to the potential of these compounds to disrupt the formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance.Baicalin is one of the few flavonones whose effects upon osteomyelitisinduced bone resorption has been investigated.This altered inflammatory response profile bears semblance to the already elucidated mechanisms of naringin signaling in reducing osteolysis in various models of bone loss.Moreover, the demonstrated ability of naringin to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resident cell apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation in other models of osteolytic and inflammatory bone loss is suggestive of its potential to mitigate the osteolytic effects of entrenched bony infection.Further in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the antiinflammatory effects of naringin therapy, and with a variety of drug delivery systems, in the setting of musculoskeletal infection are needed.The demonstrated efficacy of flavonones in preventing osteoclastic bone resorption and promoting osteoblastic differentiation and activity in other osteolytic diseases may carry over to the progressive destruction of bone characteristic of osteomyelitis.Furthermore, the natural occurrence, widespread availability, and low cost of isoflavonoids make them attractive in the treatment of osteomyelitis and in addressing the unequal burden of chronic osteomyelitis in low and middleincome countries.Numerous biomaterialbased platforms have been investigated with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic effects of naringin by reducing its degradation and sustaining its spatiotemporal release within the body.This naringin nanoscaffold also suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a critical size defect of mouse calvarial bone, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in TRAP staining compared to blank PCL nanoscaffold controls.Further research is needed to characterize the in vivo performance of these novel naringinloaded delivery systems, their effects upon the bioactivity of naringin in various bodily tissues, and their safety and utility in the treatment of diverse musculoskeletal conditions.Measured serum bio markers included alanine aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, and potassium, as well as total white blood cell and eosinophil counts as markers of immune system activation.At these doses, naringin metabolites freely circulate and are effectively cleared from the body within hof ingestion.The authors concluded that oral doses of mg of naringinen are safe and tolerable in healthy adults, with serum concentrations proportional to the oral doses received.One randomized controlled trial of excessive grapefruit consumption reported constipation and diarrhea as adverse effects, though it is not clear whether this effect can be solely or primarily attributed to naringin.It may also be extracted from the chitinous exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell membranes of mushrooms.Glucosamine is a precursor of glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and is vital for the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate, all components of the extracellular matrices of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.The utility of glucosamine supplementation in the forms of glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride has been explored in multiple randomized clinical trials of osteoarthritis patients.However, the authors classified these data as inconsistent and unclear with a likely modest effect size, if any.Chondroitin sulfate increases synovial cell production of hyaluronan, which maintains the viscosity of synovial fluid.In a clinical trial of patients given mg of chondroitin sulfate or placebo for months, chondroitin sulfate demonstrated superiority to placebo with respect to global hand pain, hand function, and morning stiffness reduction.

    May 10
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast Targetmol's Ixazomib activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 10
  • These findings suggest that naringin is a potent natural promoter of osteogenesis with the potential for use in stem cell therapies, which traditionally use dexamethasone for lineage differentiation.Such treatments are often limited by adipogenesis secondary to glucocorticoid exposure, even when conducted in osteogenic media.Increased osteoclastogenesis is the hallmark of many bone pathologies, including senile osteoporosis due to increased adipogenesis, postmenopausal osteoporosis secondary to the loss of the osteoblastic and antiosteoclastic effects of estrogen, and diabetic osteoporosis induced by the proinflammatory state and resultant macroangiopathies and microangiopathies characteristic of diabetes mellitus.Osteoclastogenesis is mediated by interactions between RANKRANKL and osteoprotegrin; pathologic states increase the RANKRANKL ratio present in bone and decrease production of OPG.Naringin has been shown to successfully disrupt osteoclastogenesis via the RANKRANKL pathway. Furthermore, naringin enhances OPG release from osteoblasts, reducing interactions between RANKL and its receptor and preventing osteoclast differentiation.The buy Glutathione combination of these mechanisms suppresses the expression of genes critical to osteoclast development.In childhood and adolescence, estrogen drives progression to skeletal maturity and the maturation and fusion of the epiphyseal growth plates.In adults, estrogen maintains bone stock and influences bone turnover by inhibiting bone resorption.Estrogen mediates its boneprotective effects through estrogen receptor. Estrogen also induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by upregulating interactions between the death receptor and its ligand. Furthermore, estrogen inhibits osteoblastmediated osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the production of IL, IL, and TNF, which induce osteoclast differentiation from progenitor cells.Estrogen also modulates the synthesis of OPG, which serves as a decoy receptor for RANKL, by osteoblasts, thus hindering osteoclastogenesis.The loss of estrogen production in menopause is the primary causative factor of diminished BMD and increased predisposition to fractures among postmenopausal women.Naringin also downregulates expression of BCL while upregulating expression of BAX, caspase, and cytochrome C, suggesting that naringin may induce osteoclast apoptosis through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.The ability of naringin to induce apoptosis in exposed osteoclasts and upregulate OPG mRNA levels in MCTE cells hinders osteoclastogenesis in ways that mirror the native effects of estrogen on bone.By targeting pathways vital to the pathogenesis of menopauseinduced bone loss, naringin may stem the musculoskeletal consequences of reduced estrogen production for the restoration of bone stock.Daily oral naringin administration increased femoral bone mass in healthy mice by enhancing trabecular and cortical bone content and quality. The majority of osteoporosis animal models have employed ovariectomy to reduce circulating estrogen levels and induce osteoclastmediated bone resorption.This model simulates the loss of estrogen production characteristic of menopause, after which the cortical and trabecular BMD and interconnections between bone cells become drastically diminished and the risk of pathologic fracture significantly increases, resulting in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Orchidectomized, retinoic acidinduced, and disuseinduced animal models of osteoporosis have also been generated to study disease physiology and therapeutic avenues.Naringin has been found to mitigate the loss of bone calcium and phosphorus content, BMD, bone architecture quality and bone mechanical strength across all murine models of osteoporosis, particularly in OVX mice and rats. In vivo effects of naringin.Osteoporosis secondary to the loss of estrogens anabolic effects during menopause, the proinflammatory state of diabetes that promotes osteoclastogenesis, or the loss of pERK due to glucocorticoid use leads to decreased trabeculae volume, yielding an increased risk of fracture.

    May 10
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by sell Retinol upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 10
  • These findings suggest that naringin is a potent natural promoter of osteogenesis with the potential for use in stem cell therapies, which traditionally use dexamethasone for lineage differentiation.Such treatments are often limited by adipogenesis secondary to glucocorticoid exposure, even when conducted in osteogenic media.Increased osteoclastogenesis is the hallmark of many bone pathologies, including senile osteoporosis due to increased adipogenesis, postmenopausal osteoporosis secondary to the loss of the osteoblastic and antiosteoclastic effects of estrogen, and diabetic osteoporosis induced by the proinflammatory state and resultant macroangiopathies and microangiopathies characteristic of diabetes mellitus.Osteoclastogenesis is mediated by interactions between RANKRANKL and osteoprotegrin; pathologic states increase the RANKRANKL ratio present in bone and decrease production of OPG.Naringin has been shown to successfully disrupt osteoclastogenesis via the RANKRANKL pathway. Furthermore, naringin enhances OPG release from osteoblasts, reducing interactions between RANKL and its receptor and preventing osteoclast differentiation.The combination of these mechanisms suppresses the expression of genes critical to osteoclast development.In childhood and adolescence, estrogen drives progression to skeletal maturity and the maturation and fusion of the epiphyseal growth plates.In adults, estrogen maintains bone stock and influences bone turnover by inhibiting bone resorption.Estrogen mediates its boneprotective effects through estrogen receptor. Estrogen also induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by upregulating interactions between the death receptor and its ligand. Furthermore, estrogen inhibits osteoblastmediated osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the production of IL, IL, and TNF, which induce osteoclast differentiation from progenitor cells.Estrogen also modulates the synthesis of OPG, which serves as a decoy receptor for RANKL, by osteoblasts, thus hindering osteoclastogenesis.The loss of estrogen production in menopause is the primary causative factor of diminished BMD and increased predisposition to fractures among postmenopausal women.Naringin also downregulates expression of BCL while upregulating expression of BAX, caspase, and cytochrome C, suggesting that naringin may induce osteoclast apoptosis through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.The ability of naringin to induce apoptosis in exposed osteoclasts and upregulate OPG mRNA levels in MCTE cells hinders osteoclastogenesis in ways that mirror the native effects of estrogen on bone.By targeting pathways vital to the pathogenesis of menopauseinduced bone loss, naringin may stem the musculoskeletal consequences of reduced estrogen production for the restoration of bone stock.Daily oral naringin administration increased femoral bone mass in healthy mice by enhancing trabecular and cortical bone content and quality. The majority of osteoporosis animal models have employed ovariectomy to reduce circulating estrogen levels and induce osteoclastmediated bone resorption.This model simulates the loss of estrogen production characteristic of menopause, after which the cortical and trabecular BMD and interconnections between bone cells become drastically diminished and the risk of pathologic fracture significantly increases, resulting in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Orchidectomized, retinoic acidinduced, and disuseinduced animal models of osteoporosis have also been generated to study disease physiology and therapeutic avenues.Naringin has been found to mitigate the loss of bone calcium and phosphorus content, BMD, bone architecture quality and bone mechanical strength across all murine models of osteoporosis, particularly in OVX mice and rats. In vivo effects of naringin.Osteoporosis secondary to the loss of estrogens anabolic effects during menopause, the proinflammatory state of diabetes that promotes osteoclastogenesis, or the loss of pERK due to glucocorticoid use leads to decreased trabeculae volume, yielding an increased risk of fracture.

    May 10
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 10
  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 9
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular Targetmol's Bimatoprost microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 10
  • These effects are postulated to stem from the positive regulation of glucose metabolism and GLUT mobilization by naringin.In addition, the effects of naringin upon serum lipid regulation have been extensively investigated in vivo.The favorable lipid regulatory profile of naringin may be linked to its positive effects on bone secondary to its promotion of vascular and microvascular health.The relationship between hyperlipidemia and diabetic microangiopathy, resulting in reduced vascular delivery to bone and local hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses, is well established.Naringin administration reduces the expression of various serum markers of inflammation in in vivo models of DM.The aortae of diabetic mice treated with naringin displayed less endothelial damage, as visualized on transmission electron microscopy, as well as greater vascular functionality, as measured by responsivity to exogenously administered epinephrine, acetylcholine, and insulin.Moreover, naringin has been observed to induce SEMA, a local bone microenvironmental factor that both promotes new bone formation and reduces bone resorption, expression in vivo.Although these medications are effective in their ability to suppress the immune system, their deleterious effects are many, particularly upon bone.Chronic exogenous steroid administration contributes to osteopenia, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture, poor fracture healing, and avascular necrosis.In vivo models of glucocorticoidtreated mice have demonstrated that glucocorticoids not only reduce trabecular bone volume and whole bone strength, but also alter the osteocyte lacunae microenvironment, thereby decreasing the bone mineral to matrix ratio and increasing bone fragility. In this way, high dose andor chronic glucocorticoid administration begets osteopenia and osteoporosis.In a rabbit model of steroidinduced avascular necrosis of the femoral head, naringin treatment significantly mitigated steroidassociated reductions in serum OCN levels and observed rates of osteonecrosis.Multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis expression have been observed in osteoporotic mice.GIO rats demonstrated decreased expression of BMP and RUNX, thus impairing osteoblastic differentiation.Phosphoinositide kinase are also disrupted in GIO, resulting in perturbed bone growth and formation.Naringin therapy was associated with lower total cholesterol levels and lowdensity lipoproteinhighdensity lipoprotein ratios in SANFH animals.The modulation of these signaling pathways in bone by naringin, as detailed previously, are indicative of naringins manifold local and systemic inflammatory effects.Targetmol's Alectinib Additional in vivo research of the effects of naringin in models of GIO, fracture healing, and avascular necrosis are needed to more effectively prevent and combat glucocorticoidinduced conditions of bone.In a mouse model of ankylosis spondylitis, intraperitoneal flavonoid therapy reduced the expression of TNF, IL, IL, signal transducer and activator of transcription in a dosedependent fashion.These effects on estrogen receptors have been described extensively with respect to osteoporosis both in vitro and in vivo but require further elucidation in the setting of osteoarthritis.The spread of infection from bone to surrounding soft tissue reduces vascular supply to bone, allowing for the formation of a sequestrum, or area of dead bone, constraining the medullary and periosteal blood supplies.Given the persistence, recurrence, and severe morbidity and mortality of osteomyelitis despite antibiotic treatment, new and improved therapeutic options are being sought.Though the flavonones promote bone health by reducing inflammatory injury and osteolysis and increasing new bone formation, their effects in osteomyelitis have yet to be thoroughly characterized.

    May 10
  • These effects are postulated to stem from the positive regulation of glucose metabolism and GLUT mobilization by naringin.In addition, the effects of naringin upon serum lipid regulation have been extensively investigated in vivo.The favorable lipid regulatory profile of naringin may be linked to its positive effects on bone secondary to its promotion of vascular and microvascular health.The relationship between hyperlipidemia and diabetic microangiopathy, resulting in reduced vascular delivery to bone and local hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses, is well established.Naringin administration reduces the expression of various serum markers of inflammation in in vivo models of DM.The aortae of diabetic mice treated with naringin displayed less endothelial damage, as visualized on transmission electron microscopy, as well as greater vascular functionality, as measured by responsivity to exogenously administered epinephrine, acetylcholine, and insulin.Moreover, naringin has been observed to induce SEMA, a local bone microenvironmental factor that both promotes new bone formation and reduces bone resorption, expression in vivo.Although these medications are effective in their ability to suppress the immune system, their deleterious effects are many, particularly upon bone.Chronic exogenous steroid administration contributes to osteopenia, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture, poor fracture healing, and avascular necrosis.In vivo models of glucocorticoidtreated mice have demonstrated that glucocorticoids not only reduce trabecular bone volume and whole bone strength, but also alter the osteocyte lacunae microenvironment, thereby decreasing the bone mineral to matrix ratio and increasing bone fragility. In this way, high dose andor chronic glucocorticoid administration begets osteopenia and osteoporosis.In a rabbit model of steroidinduced avascular necrosis of the femoral head, naringin treatment significantly mitigated steroidassociated reductions in serum OCN levels and observed rates of osteonecrosis.Multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis expression have been observed in osteoporotic mice.GIO rats demonstrated decreased expression of BMP and RUNX, thus impairing osteoblastic differentiation.Phosphoinositide kinase are also disrupted in GIO, resulting in perturbed bone growth and formation.Naringin Targetmol's Ibrutinib therapy was associated with lower total cholesterol levels and lowdensity lipoproteinhighdensity lipoprotein ratios in SANFH animals.The modulation of these signaling pathways in bone by naringin, as detailed previously, are indicative of naringins manifold local and systemic inflammatory effects.Additional in vivo research of the effects of naringin in models of GIO, fracture healing, and avascular necrosis are needed to more effectively prevent and combat glucocorticoidinduced conditions of bone.In a mouse model of ankylosis spondylitis, intraperitoneal flavonoid therapy reduced the expression of TNF, IL, IL, signal transducer and activator of transcription in a dosedependent fashion.These effects on estrogen receptors have been described extensively with respect to osteoporosis both in vitro and in vivo but require further elucidation in the setting of osteoarthritis.The spread of infection from bone to surrounding soft tissue reduces vascular supply to bone, allowing for the formation of a sequestrum, or area of dead bone, constraining the medullary and periosteal blood supplies.Given the persistence, recurrence, and severe morbidity and mortality of osteomyelitis despite antibiotic treatment, new and improved therapeutic options are being sought.Though the flavonones promote bone health by reducing inflammatory injury and osteolysis and increasing new bone formation, their effects in osteomyelitis have yet to be thoroughly characterized.

    May 10
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 10
  • After the first day use of thalidomide, clinical conditions including oxygen index improved.Cytokines such as IL, IL, IFN all decreased to normal range.Proposed mechanisms are as follows: thalidomide inhibits NFB, which further suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL, and prevents the cytokine surge.Moreover, the sedative and antiemetic property of thalidomide helps anxious patients calm down, which reduces oxygen consumption.Now, at least one clinical trial has been conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of thalidomide as an adjuvant therapy for COVID pneumonia.Targetmol's Ticagrelor Leflunomide inhibits the synthesis of pyrimidine via acting on the mitochondrial enzyme DHODH; therefore, rapidly dividing cells, especially lymphocytes, are suppressed.On the other hand, leflunomide showed antiviral activity at least for CMV, BKV, and HIV.Herpes simplex virus A case report with perianal HSV lesions in an acyclovirresistant HIV patient significantly improved with leflunomide mg, twice a day.Another HIV patient with HSVHSV pseudotumors on the perineum and scrotum only slightly improved with valacyclovir, foscarnet, and imiquimod.After months of leflunomide, complete regression of the lesions was noted.Leflunomide has both immunomodulation and antiviral activities in the HSV pseudotumors because pseudotumor formation is an immune reconstruction phenomenon in HIV patients.The expression of HIV coreceptors CCR and CXCR was also reduced compared with placebo.Due to treatment resistance, azathioprine was switched to leflunomide. All the lesions subsided in three patients within months of leflunomide treatment.Multiple recalcitrant verrucae in three and molluscum in one of renal allograft recipients cleared after switching from MMF to leflunomide.Leflunomide can serve as a potential option for patients with skin warts or molluscum concomitant with immune conditions that require immunosuppressants.Cytomegalovirus A review article collected transplant recipients with CMV infection treated by leflunomide.Among them, the plasma CMV viral load became undetectable in patients. Most of the patients had ganciclovirresistance mutation.A prospective study evaluated renal transplant recipients.A loading dose of mg for the first days and then mg per day was given.The result showed patients responded to leflunomide with involved organ healing and viremia clearance.Leflunomide was regarded as an addon treatment for multidrugresistance CMV infection.Leflunomide is now generally accepted as a second choice after reduction of immunosuppressive agents.However, in a phase II RCT, viremia was decreased in the group of leflunomide active metabolites, but no significant improvement of renal function was noted.Leflunomide showed a potent, dosedependent antiRSV activity in cell cultures.Also, pulmonary viral loads were prominently reduced in cotton rats, even if there was a day delay of leflunomide administration after viral inoculation.Leflunomide offers a dual benefit of both viralload reduction and antiinflammatory effects that attenuate the destruction of cytokinerelated diseases.It is also used off label for vitiligo and alopecia areata.Ex vivo and animal studies revealed positive results of tofacitinib for ATLL and HAM.Accumulating data demonstrated a major role of JAK in the pathophysiology of ATLL.Bone marrow suppression is the major and common adverse effect of hydroxyurea.Among all the trials, hydroxyurea was combined with didanosine, a nucleoside analog reversetranscriptase inhibitor. However, one should be reminded that decreased CD counts were noted in some studies.Therefore, close follow up of hematologic change is required in daily practice.

    May 10
  • These effects are postulated to stem from the positive regulation of glucose metabolism and GLUT mobilization by naringin.In addition, the effects of naringin upon serum lipid regulation have been extensively investigated in vivo.The favorable lipid regulatory profile of naringin may be linked to its positive effects on bone secondary to its promotion of vascular and microvascular health.The relationship between hyperlipidemia and diabetic microangiopathy, resulting in reduced vascular delivery to bone and local hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses, is well established.Naringin administration reduces the expression of various serum markers of inflammation in in vivo models of DM.The aortae of diabetic mice treated with naringin displayed less endothelial damage, as visualized on transmission electron microscopy, as well as greater vascular functionality, as measured by responsivity to exogenously administered epinephrine, acetylcholine, and insulin.Moreover, naringin has been observed to induce SEMA, a local bone microenvironmental factor that both promotes new bone formation and reduces bone resorption, expression in vivo.Although these medications are effective in their ability to suppress the immune system, their deleterious effects are many, particularly upon bone.Chronic exogenous steroid administration contributes to osteopenia, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture, poor fracture healing, and avascular necrosis.In vivo models of glucocorticoidtreated mice have demonstrated that glucocorticoids not only reduce trabecular bone volume and whole bone strength, but also alter the osteocyte lacunae microenvironment, thereby buy Xanthohumol decreasing the bone mineral to matrix ratio and increasing bone fragility. In this way, high dose andor chronic glucocorticoid administration begets osteopenia and osteoporosis.In a rabbit model of steroidinduced avascular necrosis of the femoral head, naringin treatment significantly mitigated steroidassociated reductions in serum OCN levels and observed rates of osteonecrosis.Multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis expression have been observed in osteoporotic mice.GIO rats demonstrated decreased expression of BMP and RUNX, thus impairing osteoblastic differentiation.Phosphoinositide kinase are also disrupted in GIO, resulting in perturbed bone growth and formation.Naringin therapy was associated with lower total cholesterol levels and lowdensity lipoproteinhighdensity lipoprotein ratios in SANFH animals.The modulation of these signaling pathways in bone by naringin, as detailed previously, are indicative of naringins manifold local and systemic inflammatory effects.Additional in vivo research of the effects of naringin in models of GIO, fracture healing, and avascular necrosis are needed to more effectively prevent and combat glucocorticoidinduced conditions of bone.In a mouse model of ankylosis spondylitis, intraperitoneal flavonoid therapy reduced the expression of TNF, IL, IL, signal transducer and activator of transcription in a dosedependent fashion.These effects on estrogen receptors have been described extensively with respect to osteoporosis both in vitro and in vivo but require further elucidation in the setting of osteoarthritis.The spread of infection from bone to surrounding soft tissue reduces vascular supply to bone, allowing for the formation of a sequestrum, or area of dead bone, constraining the medullary and periosteal blood supplies.Given the persistence, recurrence, and severe morbidity and mortality of osteomyelitis despite antibiotic treatment, new and improved therapeutic options are being sought.Though the flavonones promote bone health by reducing inflammatory injury and osteolysis and increasing new bone formation, their effects in osteomyelitis have yet to be thoroughly characterized.

    May 10
  • Four openlabel and three doubleblind trials have been conducted on the effects of collagen hydrolysate in osteoarthritis.The aforementioned common nutraceutical compounds have been associated with modest improvements in various parameters of degenerative joint disease severity and progression, though inconsistencies exist between clinical trial results and study designs.Moreover, these natural substances are plagued by bioavailability limitations, necessitating the oral consumption of higher doses.Though the described nutraceuticals are commonly used in the prevention andor treatment of osteoarthritis due to their chondroprotective potential, recommendations regarding their use are conflicting.As previously described, the ability of naringin to improve numerous aspects of musculoskeletal health and protect against degenerative cartilaginous and bone pathology in preclinical studies merits clinical investigation.Naringins mechanisms of action are also distinct from those of the aforementioned nutraceuticals and may contribute to more consistent clinical improvements based on preclinical findings.Despite its inherent pharmacokinetic limitations similar to those of the other natural chondroprotective compounds, the enhanced delivery, release, and action of naringin on bone and connective tissue via novel bioformulations may address existent shortcomings in the clinical use and evaluation of nutritional supplements in musculoskeletal pathology.All of these potential therapeutic avenues of naringin have yet to be thoroughly clinically interrogated.Naringin effectively reduces osteoclastogenesis, inflammation, and adipogenesis and induces osteoblastic differentiation from progenitor cells for the maintenance and preservation of both cartilage and bone.Though naringin demonstrates promise as a therapeutic agent for several forms of osteoporosis, DM, degenerative joint disease, and osteomyelitis, many limitations must be addressed before these early findings can be translated into viable therapies.Additional research is needed into the ways in which the pharmacokinetic properties of naringin can be improved, be it through the use of constructs such as nanocarriers and hydrogels, to optimize naringin delivery, action, and persistence at sites of action.Regardless, naringin represents a ubiquitous, costefficient, biologically active, natural compound whose potential can be harnessed to develop novel treatments for common musculoskeletal conditions.All authors approved the final version of this manuscript.The function of naringin in inducing secretion of osteoprotegerin and inhibiting formation of osteoclasts.Upregulation of PPAR, heat shock protein and by naringin attenuates insulin resistance, cell dysfunction, hepatic steatosis and kidney damage in a rat model of type diabetes.Pathophysiology of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis.Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network metaanalysis.Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature.Semin Arthritis Rheum. Nonoperative management of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.Visit SAGE journals online journals.sagepub.com hometab SAGE journa ls journals.sagepub.comhometab The allelopathic assessment was conducted using two methods: sandwich and dishpack.Whilst, at the distance of mm from the donor source well by using dish pack.These chemical compounds are released into the environment from plant parts through leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and other processes in both natural and agricultural systems, cheaper and environmental friendly, thus provide better option compared to herbicide. This species is a perennial herb growing with dense taproot, woody cylindrical stem with simple leaves. In galenic medicine, this plant is used to treat bronchitis, coughs, gastrointestinal complaints, tumours, pain relief, pulmonary and respiratory ailments.

    May 10
  • The primary site of flavonone action is the cytoplasmic membrane.This may allude to the potential of these compounds to disrupt the formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance.Baicalin is one of the few flavonones whose effects upon osteomyelitisinduced bone resorption has been investigated.This altered inflammatory response profile bears semblance to the already elucidated mechanisms of naringin signaling in reducing osteolysis in various models of bone loss.Moreover, the demonstrated ability of naringin to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resident cell apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation in other models of osteolytic and inflammatory bone loss is suggestive of its potential to mitigate the osteolytic effects of entrenched bony infection.Further in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the antiinflammatory effects of naringin therapy, and with a variety of drug delivery systems, in the setting of musculoskeletal infection are needed.The demonstrated efficacy of flavonones in preventing osteoclastic bone resorption and promoting osteoblastic differentiation and activity in other osteolytic diseases may carry over to the progressive destruction of bone characteristic of osteomyelitis.Furthermore, the natural occurrence, widespread availability, and low cost of isoflavonoids make them attractive in the treatment of osteomyelitis and in addressing the unequal burden of chronic osteomyelitis in low and middleincome countries.Numerous biomaterialbased platforms have been investigated with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic effects of naringin by reducing its degradation and sustaining its spatiotemporal release within the body.This naringin nanoscaffold also suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a critical size defect of mouse calvarial bone, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in TRAP staining compared to blank PCL nanoscaffold controls.Further research is needed to characterize the in vivo performance of these novel naringinloaded delivery systems, their effects upon the bioactivity of naringin in various bodily tissues, and their safety and utility in the treatment of diverse musculoskeletal conditions.Measured serum biomarkers included alanine aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, and potassium, as well as total white blood cell and eosinophil counts as markers of immune system activation.At these doses, naringin metabolites freely circulate and are effectively cleared from the body within hof ingestion.The authors concluded that oral doses of mg of naringinen are safe and tolerable in healthy adults, with serum concentrations proportional to the oral doses received.One randomized controlled trial of excessive grapefruit consumption reported constipation and diarrhea as adverse effects, though it is not clear whether this effect can be solely or primarily attributed to naringin.It may also be extracted from the chitinous exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell membranes of mushrooms.Glucosamine is a precursor of glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and is vital for the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate, all components of the extracellular matrices of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.The utility of glucosamine supplementation in the forms of glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride has been explored in multiple randomized clinical trials of osteoarthritis patients.However, the authors classified these data as inconsistent and unclear with a likely modest effect size, if any.Chondroitin sulfate increases synovial cell production of hyaluronan, which maintains the viscosity of synovial fluid.In a clinical trial of patients given mg of chondroitin sulfate or placebo for months, chondroitin sulfate demonstrated superiority to placebo with respect to global hand pain, hand function, and morning Targetmol's Retinol stiffness reduction.

    May 10
  • We planned subgroup analysis based on dosage and treatment duration, however, the number of trials in each stratum was so limited that subgroup analysis could not be conducted as planned.Thus, the impact of different dosages, frequencies and treatment durations on the outcomes was not evaluated.According to available evidence, Targetmol's Glutathione Berberine has a good effect on infectious, noninfectious, acute and persistent diarrhea.It can also be used to treat adults and children with diarrhea.There is also some evidence for the efficacy of berberine combined with montmorillonite in the treatment of diarrhea in children.The use of berberine and berberine in combination with montmorillonite appears to be an adjunctive therapy for diarrhea.Although some studies have demonstrated the efficacy of berberine and montmorillonite in combination with anisodamine, vitamin B or probiotics for diarrhea; however, due to the small number of studies and participants, we are not certain of this.Berberine enema treatments for childhood diarrhea were very outstanding.Montmorillonite slows down the peristaltic speed of the intestinal wall, improves the microcirculation of intestinal, and enhances the immunity of body.Vitamin B promotes metabolism, repairs the gastrointestinal mucosa and improves the function of the digestive system.Probiotics adjust the balance of intestinal flora, inhibit the production of endotoxins by harmful bacteria and maintain the normal physiological function of human intestines.Berberine combined with montmorillonite and vitamin B or probiotics can improve dyspepsia, reduce vomiting and restore the normal physiological function of the intestinal mucosal barrier.Because of the low bioavailability of berberine, it needs to be given three times a day for adults.Although it adds extra burden to the patients, it only has a high drug concentration in the intestine, and its blood drug concentration is almost negligible.Thus, berberine can reduce the risk of systemic side effects.Acute diarrhea is often due to viruses or bacteria which are resistant to some antibiotics.Overall, studies included in our review were infectious diarrhea; however, no pathogen was reported.We are unable to tell whether there were misuse of antibiotics.We suggest, in clinical practice, antibiotics should be prescribed according to local regulations to avoid as much as possible misuse and overuse. Merits and risks of berberine enema need to be further explored.Implications for research A large sample and multicenter welldesigned clinical studies on berberine in specific population and treatment protocol are needed since berberine has shown therapeutic evidence or potentials in all above circumstances with seemingly low safety risk, and preclinical research evidence support.Economic analysis should be provided to guide practices in different countries or regions.Berberine alone or combined with montmorillonite may have benefit for diarrhea.There are few studies evaluating necessary outcomes in berberine for diarrhea, especially for absenteeism, the intensity of antibiotic use, quality of life and recurrent diarrhea.Due to the risk of bias and concern of publication bias, the above evidence was moderate to low or very low.All authors approved the final version of the article, including the authorship list.Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhea by. Visit SAGE journals online journals.sagepub.com hometag SAGE journa ls Its high infectivity and moderate mortality have resulted in an urgent need to find an effective treatment modality.

    May 10
  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 8
  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 7
  • These effects are postulated to stem from the positive regulation of glucose metabolism and GLUT mobilization by naringin.In addition, the effects of naringin upon serum lipid regulation have been extensively investigated in vivo.The favorable lipid regulatory profile of naringin may be linked to its positive effects on bone secondary to its promotion of vascular and microvascular health.The relationship between hyperlipidemia and diabetic microangiopathy, resulting in reduced vascular delivery to bone and local hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses, is well established.Naringin administration reduces the expression of various serum markers of inflammation in in vivo models of DM.The aortae of diabetic mice treated with naringin displayed less endothelial damage, as visualized on transmission electron microscopy, as well as greater vascular functionality, as measured by responsivity to exogenously administered epinephrine, acetylcholine, and insulin.Moreover, naringin has been observed to induce SEMA, a local bone microenvironmental factor that both promotes new bone formation and reduces bone resorption, expression in vivo.Although these medications are effective in their ability to suppress the immune system, their deleterious effects are many, particularly upon bone.Chronic exogenous steroid administration contributes to osteopenia, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture, poor fracture healing, and avascular necrosis.In vivo models of glucocorticoidtreated mice have demonstrated that glucocorticoids not only reduce trabecular bone volume and whole bone strength, but also alter the osteocyte lacunae microenvironment, thereby decreasing the bone mineral to matrix ratio and increasing bone fragility. In this way, high dose andor chronic glucocorticoid administration begets osteopenia and osteoporosis.In a rabbit model of steroidinduced avascular necrosis of the femoral head, naringin treatment significantly mitigated steroidassociated reductions in serum OCN levels and observed rates of osteonecrosis.Multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis expression have been observed in osteoporotic mice.GIO rats demonstrated decreased expression of BMP and RUNX, thus impairing osteoblastic differentiation.Phosphoinositide kinase are also disrupted in GIO, resulting in perturbed bone growth and formation.Naringin therapy was associated with lower total cholesterol levels and lowdensity lipoproteinhighdensity lipoprotein ratios in SANFH animals.The modulation of these signaling pathways in bone by naringin, as detailed previously, are indicative of naringins manifold local and systemic inflammatory effects.Additional in vivo research of the effects of naringin in models of GIO, fracture healing, and avascular necrosis are needed to more effectively prevent and combat glucocorticoidinduced conditions of bone.In a mouse model of ankylosis spondylitis, intraperitoneal flavonoid therapy reduced the expression of TNF, IL, IL, signal transducer and activator of transcription in a dosedependent fashion.These effects on estrogen receptors have been described extensively with respect to osteoporosis both in vitro and in vivo but require further elucidation in the setting of osteoarthritis.The spread of infection from bone to surrounding soft tissue reduces vascular supply to bone, allowing for the formation of a sequestrum, or area of dead bone, constraining the medullary and periosteal blood supplies.Given the persistence, recurrence, and severe morbidity and mortality of osteomyelitis despite antibiotic treatment, new and improved therapeutic options are being sought.Though the flavonones promote bone health by reducing inflammatory injury and osteolysis and increasing new bone formation, their effects in osteomyelitis have yet to be thoroughly characterized.

    May 8
  • The primary site of flavonone action is the cytoplasmic membrane.This may allude to the potential of these compounds to disrupt the formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance.Baicalin is one of the few flavonones whose effects upon osteomyelitisinduced bone resorption has been investigated.This altered inflammatory response profile bears semblance to the already elucidated mechanisms of naringin signaling in reducing osteolysis in various models of bone loss.Moreover, the demonstrated ability of naringin to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resident cell apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation in other models of osteolytic and inflammatory bone loss is suggestive of its potential to mitigate the osteolytic effects of entrenched bony infection.Further in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the antiinflammatory effects of naringin therapy, and with a variety of drug delivery systems, in the setting of musculoskeletal infection are needed.The demonstrated efficacy of flavonones in preventing osteoclastic bone resorption and promoting osteoblastic differentiation and activity in other osteolytic diseases may carry over to the progressive destruction of bone characteristic of osteomyelitis.Furthermore, the natural occurrence, widespread availability, and low cost of isoflavonoids make them attractive in the treatment of osteomyelitis and in addressing the unequal burden of chronic osteomyelitis in low and middleincome countries.Numerous biomaterialbased platforms have been investigated with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic effects of naringin by reducing its degradation and sustaining its spatiotemporal release within the body.This naringin nanoscaffold also suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a critical size defect of mouse calvarial bone, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in TRAP staining compared to blank PCL nanoscaffold controls.Further research is needed to characterize the in vivo performance of these novel naringinloaded delivery systems, their effects upon the bioactivity of naringin in various bodily tissues, and their safety and utility in the treatment of diverse musculoskeletal conditions.Measured serum biomarkers included alanine aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, and potassium, as well as total white blood cell and eosinophil counts as markers of immune system activation.At these doses, naringin metabolites freely circulate and are effectively cleared from the body within hof ingestion.The authors concluded that oral doses of mg of naringinen are safe and tolerable in healthy adults, with serum concentrations proportional to the oral doses received.One randomized controlled trial of excessive grapefruit consumption reported constipation and diarrhea as adverse effects, though it is not clear whether this effect can be solely or primarily attributed to naringin.It may also be extracted from the chitinous buy Vancomycin hydrochloride exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell membranes of mushrooms.Glucosamine is a precursor of glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and is vital for the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate, all components of the extracellular matrices of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.The utility of glucosamine supplementation in the forms of glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride has been explored in multiple randomized clinical trials of osteoarthritis patients.However, the authors classified these data as inconsistent and unclear with a likely modest effect size, if any.Chondroitin sulfate increases synovial cell production of hyaluronan, which maintains the viscosity of synovial fluid.In a clinical trial of patients given mg of chondroitin sulfate or placebo for months, chondroitin sulfate demonstrated superiority to placebo with respect to global hand pain, hand function, and morning stiffness reduction.

    May 8
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial Targetmol's INSULIN products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 8
  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 6
  • Naringin has been shown to be cartilageprotective by decreasing the expression of these inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and destructive enzymes.Osteomyelitis is characterized by the proliferation of bacteria that degrade bone both directly via bacterial products and indirectly by inducing inflammation productive of osteoclastic cytokines.A combined day regimen of oral naringin and treadmill exercise in OVX mice more effectively reduced the structural effects of osteoporosis on bone mass and increased bone strength than either monotherapy.Importantly, naringin administration in OVX mice has not been associated with increases in uterus weight, suggesting that the offtarget estrogenmodulating effects of estrogen are limited.This represents a significant advantage over traditional postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, which nonselectively acts upon bone, breast, ovarian, and endometrial tissue.Perhaps the greatest therapeutic benefit of naringin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been demonstrated in models of disuseinduced osteoporosis.These conditions replicate the loss of bone mechanical loading seen in limited mobility and bedridden patients and astronauts in zerogravity environments.Dosedependent recovery of trabecular microarchitecture and bone formation rates comparable to the sham group were observed with naringin treatment.Several theories have been postulated regarding the etiology of naringins bonepreserving effects in osteoporosis in in vivo models.Naringin is believed to limit the upregulation of osteoclast activity and differentiation seen in osteoporosis.In addition to mediating osteoclastogenesis, naringin has the potential to induce new bone formation in osteoporotic animals by upregulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, as described previously.Finally, naringin may also prevent microvascular damage to osteopenic and osteoporotic bone.Naringin preserves bone microvascularity in OVX mice and reduces the perturbations of NO and endothelin levels, two key regulators of vasoactivity, seen in osteoporosis.In addition, naringin promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization during fracture callus formation in murine osteoporotic models, likely by way of vascular endothelial growth factor expression changes in osteocytes.These effects resulted in the dosedependent acceleration of fracture healing in murine models.More work is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms by which naringin exerts its effects upon bone resident cells in osteoporosis.Pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis targets both osteoclastogenesis and new bone formation with agents such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone, respectively.However, the reduced responsivity of protracted disuse osteoporosis to bisphosphonate treatment and transition from bone formation to adipogenesis in bone marrow with age necessitate the adoption of new osteostimulative and osteoprotective therapies.On the cellular level, these processes increase osteoclastogenesis and reduce osteoblast levels and activity.Consequently, diabetic rats display reduced trabecular volume and bone remodeling and formation, with increased trabecular spacing in the femur and lumbar spine, similar to the findings clinically observed in various forms of osteoporosis. In vivo models of diabetes typically utilize streptozocin injections, which damage the cells of the pancreas, to recreate the pathology seen in type DM or prolonged feeding of high fat diets to simulate type DM.Increased levels of superoxide dismutase activity in bone marrow are indicative of higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Naringin has been found to normalize both SOD and CAT levels in diabetic rats.Naringin administration to diabetic rodents resulted in similar oxidative stress attenuation in the skin, liver, pancreas, and kidney.

    May 7
  • Welcome Aboard!
    May 5

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#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 562, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 661, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 671, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 671, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 680, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 681, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1068, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1463, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#20 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 948, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(16): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#11 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#20 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#21 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#22 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#23 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#24 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1349, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(16): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#11 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#20 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#21 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#22 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#23 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#24 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1374, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(16): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#11 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#20 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#21 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#22 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#23 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#24 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1785, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(16): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#11 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#20 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#21 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#22 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#23 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#24 {main}
Notice
Array and string offset access syntax with curly braces is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Array and strin...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1787, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#3 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(16): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#7 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.markdownvanilla.php(18): spl_autoload_call('Michelf\\Markdow...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(444): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/composer/ClassLoader.php(322): Composer\Autoload\includeFile('/home/bdurrell/...')
#11 [internal function]: Composer\Autoload\ClassLoader->loadClass('MarkdownVanilla')
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): spl_autoload_call('MarkdownVanilla')
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#15 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#16 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#17 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#18 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#19 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#20 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#21 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#22 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#23 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#24 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These findings ...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These findings ...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('The primary sit...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('The primary sit...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('The primary sit...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('The primary sit...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These findings ...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These findings ...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These findings ...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These findings ...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These effects a...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These effects a...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These effects a...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These effects a...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('After the first...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('After the first...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These effects a...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These effects a...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Four openlabel ...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Four openlabel ...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('The primary sit...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('The primary sit...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('We planned subg...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('We planned subg...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('These effects a...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('These effects a...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('The primary sit...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('The primary sit...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('\r\n\r\n\r\nReview my...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('\r\n\r\n\r\nReview my...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('\r\n\r\n\r\nFeel free...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('\r\n\r\n\r\nFeel free...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Function create_function() is deprecated

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(1873): gdn_ErrorHandler(8192, 'Function create...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 1873, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/Markdown.php(156): Michelf\Markdown->_initDetab()
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/michelf/php-markdown/Michelf/MarkdownExtra.php(108): Michelf\Markdown->__construct()
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(1799): Michelf\MarkdownExtra->__construct()
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.format.php(2198): Gdn_Format::markdown('Naringin has be...')
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/helper_functions.php(27): Gdn_Format::to('Naringin has be...', 'Markdown')
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/activities.php(16): writeActivity(Object(stdClass), Object(ActivityController), Object(Gdn_Session))
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/views/activity/all.php(29): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(718): include('/home/bdurrell/...')
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1316): Gdn_Controller->fetchView('', false, false)
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#14 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#15 {main}
Notice
Trying to access array offset on value of type bool

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/cache/Smarty/compile/vanilla^dfd3cb91447a990622a084888f161cbd51217ba9_0.file.default.master.tpl.php(70): gdn_ErrorHandler(8, 'Trying to acces...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 70, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_template_resource_base.php(123): content_5bb46009911e26_60856270(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
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#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_template.php(216): Smarty_Template_Compiled->render(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(232): Smarty_Internal_Template->render(false, 1)
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(134): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->_execute(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template), NULL, 'vanilla', NULL, 1)
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.smarty.php(161): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->display('/home/bdurrell/...', NULL, 'vanilla')
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1957): Gdn_Smarty->render('/home/bdurrell/...', Object(ActivityController))
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1401): Gdn_Controller->renderMaster()
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#14 {main}
Notice
Trying to access array offset on value of type bool

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/cache/Smarty/compile/vanilla^dfd3cb91447a990622a084888f161cbd51217ba9_0.file.default.master.tpl.php(115): gdn_ErrorHandler(8, 'Trying to acces...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 115, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_template_resource_base.php(123): content_5bb46009911e26_60856270(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
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#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_template.php(216): Smarty_Template_Compiled->render(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(232): Smarty_Internal_Template->render(false, 1)
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(134): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->_execute(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template), NULL, 'vanilla', NULL, 1)
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.smarty.php(161): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->display('/home/bdurrell/...', NULL, 'vanilla')
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1957): Gdn_Smarty->render('/home/bdurrell/...', Object(ActivityController))
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1401): Gdn_Controller->renderMaster()
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#14 {main}
Notice
Trying to access array offset on value of type bool

#0 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/cache/Smarty/compile/vanilla^dfd3cb91447a990622a084888f161cbd51217ba9_0.file.default.master.tpl.php(149): gdn_ErrorHandler(8, 'Trying to acces...', '/home/bdurrell/...', 149, Array)
#1 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_template_resource_base.php(123): content_5bb46009911e26_60856270(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
#2 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_template_compiled.php(114): Smarty_Template_Resource_Base->getRenderedTemplateCode(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
#3 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_template.php(216): Smarty_Template_Compiled->render(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template))
#4 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(232): Smarty_Internal_Template->render(false, 1)
#5 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/vendor/smarty/smarty/libs/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatebase.php(134): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->_execute(Object(Smarty_Internal_Template), NULL, 'vanilla', NULL, 1)
#6 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.smarty.php(161): Smarty_Internal_TemplateBase->display('/home/bdurrell/...', NULL, 'vanilla')
#7 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1957): Gdn_Smarty->render('/home/bdurrell/...', Object(ActivityController))
#8 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.controller.php(1401): Gdn_Controller->renderMaster()
#9 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.pluggable.php(210): Gdn_Controller->xRender()
#10 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/applications/dashboard/controllers/class.activitycontroller.php(158): Gdn_Pluggable->__call('render', Array)
#11 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(845): ActivityController->index('public', false)
#12 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/library/core/class.dispatcher.php(274): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatchController(Object(Gdn_Request), Array)
#13 /home/bdurrell/public_html/realeducated.com/forums/index.php(29): Gdn_Dispatcher->dispatch()
#14 {main}

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